The intention for this page is to highlight authors and activists that I feel are of particular interest. I have listed authors that have presented interesting ideas that can further a critique of our civilization and expand a biocentric view. Just because I list an author here does not indicate that I agree with all that they have to say or actions they may have taken. I also welcome suggestions of additions to this list. This list is far from complete and I apologize for any omissions. Included are brief descriptions of the author and links to specific pdfs as well as links to other webpages. A project that I am working on is to make audiobook versions of some of the works but my intention is not to infringe upon copyrights so any works will be removed from my site at the authors request.

Carol J Adams

Carol J. Adams (born 1951) is an American writer, feminist, and animal rights advocate. She is the author of several books, including The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) and The Pornography of Meat (2004), focusing in particular on what she argues are the links between the oppression of women and that of non-human animals. Adams has published around 100 articles or entries in journals, books, magazines, and encyclopedias on vegetarianism, animal rights, domestic violence, and sexual abuse.

PDFs

External Link

www.caroljadams.com

J. Baird Callicott

J. Baird Callicott is an American philosopher whose work has been at the forefront of the new field of environmental philosophy and ethics. Aldo Leopold's A Sand County Almanac is one of environmental philosophy’s seminal texts, and Callicott is widely considered to be the leading contemporary exponent of Leopold's land ethic. Callicott’s book In Defense of the Land Ethic (1989) explores the intellectual foundations of Leopold's outlook and seeks to provide it with a more complete philosophical treatment; and a following publication titled Beyond the Land Ethic (1999) further extends Leopold’s environmental philosophy.

PDFs

External Link

jbcallicott.weebly.com

Rachel Carson

Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially environmental problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides, and it inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

PDFs

Rachel Carson

External Link

www.rachelcarson.org

Bill Devall

Bill Devall (2 December 1938 – 26 June 2009) In their 1985 book Deep Ecology, Bill Devall and George Sessions describe a series of sources of deep ecology. They include the science of ecology itself, and cite its major contribution as the rediscovery in a modern context that "everything is connected to everything else." They point out that some ecologists and natural historians, in addition to their scientific viewpoint, have developed a deep ecological consciousness—for some a political consciousness and at times a spiritual consciousness. This is a perspective beyond the strictly human viewpoint, beyond anthropocentrism.

PDFs

Basic Tenants of Deep Ecology

External Link

enviroethics.org

Warwick Fox

Warwick Fox (born 1954) is an Australian philosopher and ethicist. He is the author of Toward a Transpersonal Ecology and A Theory of General Ethics: Human Relationships, Nature, and the Built Environment. Fox's ethical theory attempts to develop principles of a 'General Theory of Ethics'. He cites influence from system and complexity theory, and develops a taxonomy of three types of organizing principles: Fixed cohesion, responsive cohesion and, coining the term, discohesion.

PDFs

Deep Ecology A New Philosophy of our Time

External Link

www.warwickfox.com

Greta Gaard

Greta Claire Gaard (born 1960, Hollywood, California) is an ecofeminist writer, scholar, activist, and documentary filmmaker. Gaard's academic work in the realms of ecocriticism and ecocomposition is widely cited by scholars in the disciplines of composition and literary criticism. Her theoretical work extending ecofeminist thought into queer theory, vegetarianism, and animal liberation has been influential within women's studies. One of the most influential ecofeminist scholars, Gaard has extended ecofeminist theory by mapping linkages with queer theory and by compiling ecofeminist ideas concerning vegetarianism and animal liberation.

PDFs

External Link

gretagaard.efoliomn.com

Gedden

This is your host for this website. I am including this slot in this list as a location that I may link to my own work. I aspire to one day be worthy of inclusion amongst such intellectuals but at present, indulge my hubris as I wish to present my own writings.

PDFs

A Few Too Many

Garrett Hardin

Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American ecologist who warned of the dangers of overpopulation. His exposition of the tragedy of the commons, in a 1968 paper, called attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment". He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "You cannot do only one thing", which expresses the interconnectedness of every action.

PDFs

The Tradedy of the Commons

External Link

www.garretthardinsociety.org

Theodore Kaczynski

Theodore John "Ted" Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942), also known as the "Unabomber." His article Industrial Society and Its Future begins with Kaczynski's assertion that "the Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster for the human race." The first sections of the text are devoted to discussion of the psychology of various groups—primarily leftists (viewed from a psychological stand point; which he describes as people who are over-socialized and having feelings of and of the psychological consequences for individual life within the "industrial-technological system", which has robbed contemporary humans of their autonomy, diminished their rapport with nature, and forced them "to behave in ways that are increasingly remote from the natural pattern of human behavior”

PDFs

Industrial Society and Its Future

Aldo Leopold

Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, scientist, ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin and is best known for his book A Sand County Almanac (1949), which has sold more than two million copies.Leopold was influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness conservation. His ethics of nature and wildlife preservation had a profound impact on the environmental movement, with his ecocentric or holistic ethics regarding land. He emphasized biodiversity and ecology and was a founder of the science of wildlife management.

PDFs

The Land Ethic

Thinking Like a Mountain

AUDIO

The Land Ethic

External Link

www.aldoleopold.org

 

Pentti Linkola

Kaarlo Pentti Linkola (born 7 December 1932) is a radical Finnish deep ecologist, polemicist and fisherman. Linkola blames humans for the continuous degradation of the environment. He promotes rapid population decline in order to combat the problems commonly attributed to overpopulation. He is also strongly in favor of deindustrialization and opposes democracy, which he calls the "Religion of Death" believing it to be an agent of wasteful capitalism and consumerism. He considers the proponents of economic growth to be ignorant of the destructive effects which free market policies have had over the past two centuries.

PDFs

External Link

www.penttilinkola.com

Freya Mathews

Freya Mathews is an Australian philosopher and author. Her work is mainly concerned with ecological philosophy but also deals with questions of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and politics as well as a variety of themes, such as cosmology, place, identity and indigeneity versus modernity. Mathews was Associate Professor in Philosophy at Latrobe University till 2008 and is currently a research fellow and graduate supervisor there.

PDFs

External Link

www.freyamathews.net

Carolyn Merchant

Carolyn Merchant (born 1936 in Rochester, New York) is an American ecofeminist philosopher and historian of science most famous for her theory (and book of the same title) on 'The Death of Nature', whereby she identifies the Enlightenment as the period when science began to atomize, objectify and dissect nature, foretelling its eventual conception as inert. Her works were important in the development of environmental history and the history of science. She is Professor of Environmental History, Philosophy, and Ethics at UC Berkeley.

PDFs

External Link

ourenvironment.berkeley.edu/people_profiles/carolyn-merchant

Maria Mies

Maria Mies (born 1931, Steffeln) is a professor of sociology and author of several feminist books, including Indian Women and Patriarchy (1980), Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale (1986), and (with Bennholdt-Thomsen and von Werlhof) Women: The Last Colony (1988). She co-authored the 1993 book Ecofeminism with Vandana Shiva, laying the ground work for all ecofeminists to follow.

PDFs

External Link

postcolonialstudies.emory.edu/maria-mies/

Ted Mosquin

Ted Mosquin is a life-long naturalist, botanist and field ecologist, now retired. He is a co-author of A Manifesto for Earth and author of The Roles of Biodiversity in Creating and Maintaining the Ecosphere.

PDFs

A Manifesto for Earth

External Link

www.ecospherics.net

John Muir

John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was a Scottish-American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. He was also the founder of the Sierra Club.

PDFs

External Link

johnmuirassociation.org

Arne Næss

Arne Dekke Eide Næss (27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term Deep Ecology and was an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twentieth century. Naess believed that the environmental crisis of the twentieth century had arisen due to certain unspoken philosophical presuppositions and attitudes within modern western developed societies which remained unacknowledged. He thereby distinguished between what he called deep and shallow ecological thinking. In contrast to the prevailing utilitarian pragmatism of western businesses and governments he advocated that a true understanding of nature would give rise to a point of view that appreciates the value of biological diversity understanding that each living thing is dependent on the existence of other creatures in the complex web of interrelationships that is the natural world. Næss cited Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring as being a key influence in his vision of deep ecology. Næss combined his ecological vision with Gandhian nonviolence and on several occasions participated in direct action.

PDFs

The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement

Basic Tenants of Deep Ecology

External Link

www.deepecology.org

Val Plumwood

Val Plumwood (11 August 1939 – 28 February 2008) was an Australian ecofeminist intellectual and activist, who was prominent in the development of radical ecosophy from the early 1970s through the remainder of the 20th century. Plumwood's major theoretical works are her 1993 Feminism and the Mastery of Nature and her 2002 Environmental Culture: the Ecological Crisis of Reason. She has elaborated her views in four books and over one hundred papers.

PDFs

External Link

enviroethics.org

J.Stan Rowe

Stan Rowe (June 11, 1918 to April 6, 2004) was educated at the University of Manitoba and University of Nebraska. He was a geo-ecologist and environmentalist with a background in botany, forestry and terrain (landscape) ecology. Stan authored the book Forest Regions of Canada (1959, Queen's Printer, Ottawa) and Home Place; Essays in Ecology (NeWest Books, Edmonton, 1990; reissued 2002). At the time of his death, a third book (to be titled Earth Alive) was nearing completion. As well, he authored numerous articles, reviews, book chapters and was a celebrated public speaker on ecosystems and human ecology.
"Not a misanthrope, but a defender of Earth against the excesses of anthropes."

PDFs

A Manifesto for Earth

External Link

www.ecospherics.net

Holmes Rolston III

Holmes Rolston III (born November 19, 1932) is a philosopher who is University Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at Colorado State University. He is best known for his contributions to environmental ethics and the relationship between science and religion. Among other honors, Rolston won the 2003 Templeton Prize, awarded by Prince Philip in Buckingham Palace. He gave the Gifford Lectures, University of Edinburgh, 1997-1998. The Darwinian model is used to define the main thematic concepts in Rolston's philosophy and, in greater depth, the general trend of his thinking.

PDFs

Is There an Ecological Ethic

Environmental Ethics Values in and Duties to the Natural World

External Link

lamar.colostate.edu

George Sessions

George Sessions is co-author, with Bill Devall, of Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered, editor of Deep Ecology for the 21st Century, and co-editor of Environmental Philosophy. Deep ecology attempts to awaken us out of the superficial assumption that nature is for our pleasure and consumption, stressing the inherent value and rights of other species, and the responsibility of humans not to abuse our power for selfish ends.

PDFs

Basic Tenants of Deep Ecology

External Link

www.shambhala.com

Vandana Shiva

Vandana Shiva (born 5 November 1952) is an Indian environmental activist and anti-globalization author. Shiva, currently based in Delhi, has authored more than 20 books. She was trained as a physicist and received her Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in philosophy from the University of Western Ontario, Canada. ‘Deep ecological solutions are the only viable solutions to ensuring that every person on this planet has enough food, has enough water, has adequate shelter, has dignity and has a cultural meaning in life. If we don’t follow the path of living in ways that we leave enough space for other species, that paradigm also ensures that most human beings will be denied their right to existence. A system that denies the intrinsic value of other species denies eighty percent of humanity, their right to a dignified survival and a dignified life. It only pretends that is solving the problems of poverty, it is actually at the root of poverty. And the only real solution to poverty is to embrace the right to life of all on this planet, all humans and all species.’

PDFs

External Link

www.navdanya.org

Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza ( 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a Dutch philosopher. He often articulated the pantheist ideals that god is found in all nature. That all living things are expressions of god and should be revered on some level. While a deeply spiritual person, his beliefs were not well received by his Jewish community. Many felt that portraying nature as an earthly manifestation of god was blasphemy and called into question the principles of domination that form the basis of civilization.

PDFs

External Link

plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza

Paul Taylor

Paul W. Taylor is a philosopher best known for his work in the field of environmental ethics. His theory of biocentric egalitarianism, related to but not identical with deep ecology, was first published in his 1986 book Respect for Nature, and is taught in many university courses on environmental ethics. Taylor is professor emeritus in philosophy at Brooklyn College, City University of New York.

PDFs

Priority Principles

The Ethics of Respect for Nature

External Link

hettingern.people.cofc.edu

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay Resistance to Civil Government (also known as Civil Disobedience), an argument for disobedience to an unjust state.

PDFs

External Link

transcendentalism-legacy.tamu.edu

Karen J Warren

Karen Warren (Sep. 10, 1947 Warren was the Ecofeminist-Scholar-in-Residence at Murdoch University in Australia. In 2003, she served as an Oxford University Round Table Scholar and as Women's Chair in Humanistic Studies at Marquette University in 2004. She has spoken widely on environmental issues, feminism, critical thinking skills and peace studies in many international locations.

PDFs

External Link

www.macalester.edu

John Zerzan

John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. His works criticize agricultural civilization as inherently oppressive, and advocate drawing upon the ways of life of hunter gatherers as an inspiration for what a free society should look like. Some subjects of his criticism include domestication, language, symbolic thought (such as mathematics and art) and the concept of time. His five major books are Elements of Refusal (1988), Future Primitive and Other Essays (1994), Running on Emptiness (2002), Against Civilization: Readings and Reflections (2005) and Twilight of the Machines (2008).

PDFs

External Link

www.johnzerzan.net

 

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